At the origin of urban life. The first proto-urban cultures after the Ice Age

At the origin of urban life. The first proto-urban cultures after the Ice Age

After the end of the last ice age 11700 years ago, following a series of rapid climatic changes, man intervened sustainably in nature with the controlled cultivation of plants and animals. Old and new materials helped to cope with life, e.g. dwellings and shelters made of wood, natural stone, brick, plaster, the use of obsidian, metals (copper, lead, gold), asphalt, earthenware vessels and utility ceramics. There were polished obsidian mirrors, artificial irrigation and drainage systems, boats, floor heating and tile paving, complicated calendars, calculating stones and drawing systems, surveying techniques and standardization in measurement systems. Large proto-urban centers of life developed: e.g. the Natuf culture (Israel, 12500 to 10300 BC), Göbekli Tepe (Turkey; 9000-8000 BC), Jericho (around 9000 BC) and other sites, especially in the Near East, southern Europe and North Africa. What do we know today about these proto-urban cultures after the Ice Age? How did people live back then? What religious cults were there? How were the rapidly growing societies organized back then? How did technology and proto-science develop? There was probably also a rich tradition of myths and rituals. The high level of knowledge, art and technology already 10000 years ago is becoming increasingly apparent.

Course leader: Dr. Rappenglück, Michael A.. The course leader has a doctorate in natural sciences and is the director of the Gilching Observatory.more at https://independent.academia.edu/MichaelRappenglueck

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